Earth Science

Running Head: EARTH SCIENCE 1

EARTH SCIENCE

Earth Science

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Chapter Summary

In earth science, there are two main species from the benthic foraminifera. These two species include the neorotalia omanensis and operculina musawaensis. The two are discussed and described from the mountains of Oman. Musawaensis occurs in the formation of musawa with the association of plankitonoic Morozovella which indicates an early and middle Eocene age. Operculina, on the other hand, is a species that occurs during the formation of Abat. Its occurrence is associated with the planktonic foraminifera Acarininina. This indicates that its formation and occurrence was in the early Eocene age. The first record of the two species was done in the Middle East which showed the presence of some Neorotalia species. After recording its presence the Foraminifera genus representatives also described the formation of Linderina species in the nearest countries to where musawa was formed. However, the geographical locations and distributions of the recorded species are very big. It has covered a broad area including parts of the Middle East, Europe (from England to Romania). It also covers some parts of India and Australia, western pacific, and the Caribbean. The wide distribution of these species reflects the presence of different species that exhibits similar characteristics.

The two species are very common the shale of the lower part of the Abat formation as well as the mudstone. However, corals are very common in the limestone in the upper parts of Abat during its formation. There are also calcareous red algae species in the upper part of the Abat that occur during its formation. This makes it common for the Foraminifera to appear as the deposits in the upper part of the Abat. However, the formation of Abat has currently been dated as the early Eocene based on the planktonic foraminifera. This comprises of sediments that appear like a sequence of open-marine Basinal sediments. at the lower part of the Abat, a common Deep-Marine planktonic is also formed during the Abat formation. This Deep-Marine grows towards the upper side of the Abat and produces high energy to the outer parts of the limestone. The limestone is dominated by the benthonic foraminifera which comprise algae, corals, and echinoid plates. In the Abat, the mudstone and the packstone are separated by a thin and distinctive mudstone. This thin mudstone overlies a massive Foraminifera limestone which is 24m thick. The basal part of the limestone that is overlain by the thin mudstone is rich in the planktonic foraminifera. This has made the limestone a very valuable product in the world.

Running Head: EARTH SCIENCE

1

Earth Science

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Professor’s Name

Date