EFFECTS OF ESSENTIALOILS ON SKIN MICROBIOTA

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EFFECTS OF ESSENTIALOILS ON SKIN MICROBIOTA 7

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Effects of Essential Oils on Skin Microbiota

TA: William Sanchez

Gabriella Frias

General Biology Lab II

June 17, 2020 Outline

I. Introduction

· Essential oils (EOs) contain different compounds (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al., 2016).

· These compounds have a wide range of therapeutic actions (Foster, T. J. (2017).

· These oils have been widely investigated for various microbial properties against some protozoa, viruses, fungi and bacteria (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al., 2016).

· EOs have been found to have antifungal and antibacterial properties (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al., 2016).

II. Background Information on eucalyptus

· Eucalyptus is a plant whose oils and leaves are used for medicine (Leyva-López et al., 2017).

· The plant’s leaves contain chemical compounds that can be used to reduce the level of high blood sugar (Whaley et al., 2017).

· It also contains element that can help to reduce inflammation (Whaley et al., 2017)..

· It can also help to control asthma (Leyva-López et al., 2017).

· People use the plant to treat many conditions (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al., 2016).

III. Background information on candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus

· candida albicans is a bacterium found in the skin of human beings (Drobac et al., 2017).

· In most cases, it does not cause any infections (Lohse et al., 2018).

· candida albicans has been found to be the main cause of fungal infections (Aumeeruddy-Elalfi et al., 2016).

· Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a wide range of infections (Foster, T. J. (2017).

· About 30% of human beings are carriers of the pathogen (Drobac et al., 2017).

IV. Antibiotic resistance in C. albicans and S. aureus

· C. albicans and S. aureus can coexist in form of polymicrobial biofilms (Lohse et al., 2018).

· Studies show S. aureus attaches strongly to Hyphae (Drobac et al., 2017).

· S. aureus is more resistant to antibiotics (“Swamy, Akhtar & Sinniah 2016).

· C. albicans is more susceptible to antibiotic treatment (Lohse et al., 2018).

· Co-inoculation of S. aureus and C. albicans causes widespread infection as compared to either alone (Drobac et al., 2017).

V. Antimicrobial properties of Eos

· EOs are linked to major compounds such as thymol, eugenol, carvacrol or citral (Swamy, Akhtar & Sinniah, 2016).

· EOs are volatile and aromatic liquids (Lohse et al., 2018).

· They generally posses a strong pleasant flavor (Smeriglio, et al., 2017).

· They have strong inhibitory activities against pathogens (Smeriglio, et al., 2017).

· As a result they are used for food preservation (Lohse et al., 2018).

VI. EOs being used as antimicrobials in clinical settings

· A wide range of EOs have been used in the clinical setting ion the past few years (Bagheri et al., 2020).

· P. graveolens is used for reduction of the dose required for norfloxacin gaianst various bacterium (Foster, T. J. (2017).

· L. camara has been used widely for the treatment of P. aeruginos (Swamy, Akhtar & Sinniah, 2016).

· Croton zehntneri is effective against P. aeruginosa (Lohse et al., 2018).

· Combination of these oils provides substantial potential for the treatment of various infections (Leyva-López et al., 2017).

VII. Conclusion

· EOs has significant potentials to reduce antibiotic resistance

· More studies need to be carried out to support existing evidence on the effectiveness of EOs in reducing antibiotic resistance.

· EOs may be used in the near future for therapy

Annotated Bibliography

Aumeeruddy-Elalfi, Z., Gurib-Fakim, A., & Mahomoodally, M. F. (2016). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antibiotic potentiating activity of essential oils from 10 tropical medicinal plants from Mauritius. Journal of Herbal Medicine6(2), 88-95.

The authors of this article a widely experienced in the field of essential oils. In regard to this paper, they have provided significant insights on how essential oils can be used to reduce antibiotic resistance. The paper is consistent with the topic as it provides background information about EOs. This reference will be used in the introduction part of my paper.

Bagheri, L., Khodaei, N., Salmieri, S., Karboune, S., & Lacroix, M. (2020). Correlation between chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of essential oils against most common food pathogens and spoilers: In-vitro efficacy and predictive modelling. Microbial Pathogenesis, 104212.

The authors have done some good work in evaluating the relationship between antimicrobial properties and chemical composition. This study is very relevant for the current research since it provides critical information about antibiotic properties. This reference is going to be used to provide insights about antibiotic resistance in various skin microbiota.

Drobac, M., Petrović, S., Milenković, M., Couladis, M., Kukić-Marković, J., & Niketić, M. (2017). Composition and Antimicrobial Properties of Essential Oils of Laser Trilobum Rhizomes and Fruits. Natural product communications12(3), 1934578X1701200335.

The authors of this article a extensively experienced in the field of essential oils. The paper is consistent with the topic as it provides background information about EOs. This reference will be used in providing background information about antimicrobial properties.

Foster, T. J. (2017). Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Current status and future prospects. FEMS microbiology reviews41(3), 430-449.

The authors have done a good job in evaluating the antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. This study is very relevant for the current research since it provides critical information about antibiotic resistance. This reference is going to be used to provide insights about antibiotic resistance in various skin microbiota.

Leyva-López, N., Gutiérrez-Grijalva, E. P., Vazquez-Olivo, G., & Heredia, J. B. (2017). Essential oils of oregano: Biological activity beyond their antimicrobial properties. Molecules22(6), 989.

The authors have done a good work in evaluating the biological activities associated with essential oils. This study is very relevant to the present study as it provides significant information about essential oils. This study will be used to provide properties of EOs in the paper.

Lohse, M. B., Gulati, M., Johnson, A. D., & Nobile, C. J. (2018). Development and regulation of single-and multi-species Candida albicans biofilms. Nature Reviews Microbiology16(1), 19.

The authors of this study have done a good job in investigating the cause of antibiotic resistance. This study is very relevant in the present study as it provides significant information about EOs. This article will be used in the current study to provide background information about C. albicans.

Smeriglio, A., Denaro, M., Barreca, D., Calderaro, A., Bisignano, C., Ginestra, G., … & Trombetta, D. (2017). In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant, cytoprotective, and antimicrobial properties of essential oil from Pistacia vera L. Variety Bronte Hull. International journal of molecular sciences18(6), 1212.

The authors of this article have done a good job in evaluating the topic. The study is relevant in the current study as it explains the antibacterial properties of EOs. This study will be used to provide insights about properties of EOs and example of that are currently being used in the clinical setting.

Swamy, M. K., Akhtar, M. S., & Sinniah, U. R. (2016). Antimicrobial properties of plant essential oils against human pathogens and their mode of action: an updated review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine2016.

The authors have done some good work in presenting the present topic on EOs and their properties. The study is very relevant as it provides background information about antimicrobial properties of essential oils. This reference will be used to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of essential oils.

Tsui, C., Kong, E. F., & Jabra-Rizk, M. A. (2016). Pathogenesis of Candida albicans biofilm. FEMS Pathogens and Disease74(4), ftw018.

The authors of this article have generally done a good work in investigating the Pathogenesis of Candida albicans biofilm. The study is relevant in this study as it provides background information about EOs. This reference will be used in the second section of the paper.

Whaley, S. G., Berkow, E. L., Rybak, J. M., Nishimoto, A. T., Barker, K. S., & Rogers, P. D. (2017). Azole antifungal resistance in Candida albicans and emerging non-albicans Candida species. Frontiers in microbiology7, 2173.

The authors of this article have done exceptional work in examining the infections caused by C. albicans. This article provides background information about C. albicans and therefore is very relevant for this paper. This reference will be used in the second section of the paper to provide insight about C. albicans.

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