harming the good name of another by false making statements

government glossary, history homework help

Question Description

 

Directions: Use this glossary to complete the final Lesson Review located after the glossary.

A
Abridging – lessening or reducing certain rights
Accusation – charge of wrongdoing made against someone.
Affidavit – a written statement that the person making it swears to be true
Affirmation – a declaration made by a person that he or she is telling the truth.
Amend – to change or add to

B
Bail – money given to set free an arrested person from jail until a trial takes place
Banned – not allowed
Boycott – to avoid using, buying, or dealing with as a means of protest

C
Cabinet – presidential advisory board
Capital punishment – the death penalty
Censure – to express disapproval
Charters – legal documents issued by governments to define the purpose and privileges of corporations
Citizenship – the status of a member of a country
Civil – relating to ordinary community life as opposed to criminal proceedings (as in civil court)
Civil rights – basic freedoms guaranteed to citizens by the constitution
Commissions – independent government agencies given powers by the legislative branch.
Common law – unwritten body of law based on past actions and decision
Compelled – forced to made to do something
Compensation – payment for services or for damages
Compromise – a settlement of differences in which each side gives up something
Compulsory – something that must be done
Conciliator – one who settles disputes
Continental Congress – elected representatives advising the colonists on policies regarding relations with Britain
Concurrent – sharing by two different persons or groups acting in agreement
Confronted – met face to face
Construed – understood in a certain way
Controversy – dispute
Counsel – a lawyer who advises a client

D
Defamation – harming the good name of another by false making statements
Define – to state the precise meaning
Delegate – one authorized to act as a representative for others
Democracy – government by the people
Direct democracy – a system of government in which people participate directly in decision making through voting on issues
Discrimination – the act of judging people on the basis of prejudice
Dissent – to disagree or withhold approval on an issue
Disparage – to hold in low regard
Domestic – actions within a home or within a country
Due process – legal proceeding carried out according to rules and procedures

E
Elastic clause – powers delegated to Congress giving the power to carry out its other responsibilities
Eminent domain – the right of a government to take private property for public use because its power extends to all the nation’s lands
Establishment clause – part of the First Amendment to the constitution prohibiting the government from establishing a national religion
Excessive – more than is needed
Executive – the power to carry out laws

F
Federalism – government in which the power is divided among national and state governments
Fundamental rights – basic or essential freedoms

G
Governor – person who carries out the laws of a state
Grand jury – a group of people who decide if a person should be charged with a crime

I
Immoral – not in keeping with accepted ideas and actions
Impairing – reductions in usefulness
Impartial – not taking sides in a dispute
Impeach – to accuse a public official with wrong or illegal behavior before a special type of court
Incrimination – to charge with or involve in a crime
Indictment – written statement by a grand jury charging a person with possible wrongdoing
Infamous – action or deed of the worst kind
Infringed – acted in a way with intent to take over part of another’s right
Internment – confinement or imprisonment
Interstate – between two or more states

J
Jeopardy – danger
Joint resolutions – acts proposed by both houses of Congress
Judicial – having the power to interpret laws
Jurisdiction – authority

L
Legislative – having power to make laws
Legislature – house of government responsible for making laws
Libel – false statements tending to harm the reputation of another person

M
Martial – dealing with the military or with war
Militia – military forces that are on call for service in emergencies
Misdemeanors – less serious crimes or wrongdoings
Monarchy – rule by one person (king or queen)

N
Nomination – the act or process of being named to run for an elected office
Nullify – to take away the effect and value of something

O
Obscenity – something or that violates the general sense of decency
Oppressive – to keep down the spirits of others
Ordain – to establish by law
Override – to pass over an objection

P
Parliament – the supreme legislative body in Great Britain (England)
Petition – a formal written request signed by supporters of the request
Plea bargain – the process when an accused person agrees to plead guilty to a lesser crime to avoid a trial
Political party – an organized group that tries to control the government through elections
Popular sovereignty – self-government based on the will of the people
Pornography – words or pictures intended only to arouse sexual interest
Posterity – all future generations
Preamble – introduction to a statement
Precedent – a legal decision that serves as an example in later court cases
Presentment – offering or presenting evidence to a grand jury
Preserved – kept or held
Presumption of innocence – a person is assumed innocent until proven guilty
Probable cause – valid reason for police to search or arrest a person
Proportional representation – presentation based on differences in population size between areas
Prosecutions – actions to bring an accused person to trial

R
Radical – fundamental or extreme
Ratified – accepted by a vote
Redress – to remove the cause of
Repeal – officially withdraw
Republic – system of government where people elect officials to represent them
Residual – remaining or residing with someone or something
Revolutionary – favoring a great change in the status quo

S
Salutary neglect – when a government allows people to rule themselves as long as it benefits the government
Sedition – speaking or acting against lawful authority in a time of emergency
Statutes – laws passed by a legislative body
Sue – to seek justice through the legal process
Supreme – greatest in rank, power, or authority

T
Tariff – charges or taxes place by the government on imported goods
Tranquility – peacefulness
Treason – acting against one’s own country in a time of war
Treaties – written agreements between two or more states
Tyranny – a government where a single ruler possesses all the power

U
Unbiased – not favoring any side in a dispute

V
Vested – authority given to a person or group
Veto – to reject a law by refusing to approve it

W
Writ of habeas corpus – a court order requiring the government to release a prisoner unless good cause can be shown
Writ of mandamus – document that mandates, or requires, a public official to perform certain duties

Lesson 11 Review

Application Activity #1:

Directions: Define each of the following terms in your own words and provide an example that illustrates the meaning of the term.

supreme
ordain
tranquility
posterity
statutes
monarchy
treaties
treason
preamble
interstate
vested
impeach
domestic
residual
misdemeanors
concurrent
veto
nullify
override
oppressive
commissions
parliament
ratified
counsel
banned
immoral
impairing
bail
defamation
abridging
libel
Eminent Domain
obscenity
sedition
infringed
affirmation
indictment
presentment
martial
unbiased
Incrimination
compelled
nomination

Application Activity #2:

Choose any ten of the terms listed above. Conduct an internet search to identify an example of each term as it applies to current events. Write a summary of each event and how it illustrates the meaning or application of the term. Don’t forget to cite your sources.