1. Naturally occurring

2. Solid substance

3. Orderly crystalline structure

4. Definite chemical composition

5. Generally considered inorganic

Definition of a Mineral


1. Crystallization from magma

2. Precipitation

3. Pressure and temperature

4. Hydrothermal solutions

How Minerals Form

 Can be classified based on their



1. Silicates

• Silicon and oxygen combine to form a structure

called the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. This

silicon-oxygen tetrahedron provides the

framework of every silicate mineral.

Mineral Groups

The Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedron

Silicon-Oxygen Chains, Sheets, and Three-Dimensional Networks


2. Carbonates

• Minerals that contain the elements carbon,

oxygen, and one or more other metallic


3. Oxides • Minerals that contain oxygen and one or more

other elements, which are usually metals

Mineral Groups


4. Sulfates and Sulfides

• Minerals that contain the element sulfur

5. Halides

• Minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or

more other elements

6. Native elements

• Minerals that exist in relatively pure form

Mineral Groups


Native Copper

The Rock Cycle

 Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or

mineral-like matter occurring naturally

as part of our planet.

 Types of Rocks

1. Igneous rock is formed by the crystallization

of molten magma.

The Rock Cycle

 Types of Rocks

2. Sedimentary rock is formed from the

weathered products of preexisting rocks that

have been transported, deposited, compacted,

and cemented.

3. Metamorphic rock is formed by the alteration

of pre-existing rock deep within Earth (but still

in the solid state) by heat, pressure, and/or

chemically active fluids.

The Rock Cycle

 Shows the interrelationships among the three

rock types (igneous, sedimentary, and


 Magma is molten material that forms deep

beneath the Earth’s surface.

 Lava is magma that reaches the surface.

 Weathering is a process in which rocks are

broken down by water, air, and living things.

 Sediment is weathered pieces of Earth


The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle

 Processes driven by heat from the Earth’s

interior are responsible for forming both

igneous rock and metamorphic rock.

 External processes produce sedimentary


 Weathering and the movement of weathered

materials are external processes powered by

energy from the sun.

Energy That Drives the Rock Cycle