Muscular and Skeletal Systems

Ashworth College Wk2 Muscular and Skeletal Systems Discussion

Ashworth College

Question Description

 

Review your classmates’ posts and respond to two peers to further discuss the muscular and skeletal systems. At least one of your responses should be to a peer who was assigned the body system you did not discuss in your original post. Choose a dysfunction of this system and identify contributing factors for this disease. Explain the etiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment for this disease. Examine how this disease can have an effect on the other physiological systems of the body. Finally, discuss how this disease and dysfunction of the body system may have an impact on the environment or how the disease is impacted by the environment. Each peer response should be at least 100 words in length and should be supported by one scholarly source.

Here is my response- Osteoporosis is a skeletal system disease characterized by fragile bones highly susceptible to fractures. The main contributory factors include hormonal defects like increased production of parathyroid and thyroid hormones, low levels of estrogen, female gender, smoking, binge drinking, and nutritional deficiencies (Akkawi, I., & Zmerly, H. 2018). This condition is based on lack of a balance between resorption old bone and formation of new bone. In osteoporosis, during bone remodeling, there is increased osteoclastic activity in the bone hence elevated bone resorption. In contrast, the osteoblastic activities are significantly reduced, thus low levels of bone formation resulting in low bone mass and strength(Akkawi, I., & Zmerly, H. 2018).

The disease is characterized by multiple bone fractures attributed to very little trauma force or routine activities like walking and running. The disease may also be exhibited with abnormal spine curvatures, for instance, hyper kyphosis(Akkawi, I., & Zmerly, H. 2018). The primary diagnostic tool of osteoporosis is through the use of imaging techniques like an x-ray to detect and analyze the fractures and urinary tests to establish blood calcium and phosphate ion levels to examine bone resorption and remodeling. Treatments for the condition include both lifestyle and medication therapies such as diet and physical exercise; calcium, phosphates and Vitamin D medications(Tu, K. N. et al 2018). Osteoporosis has effects on other body systems, for instance, the nervous systems. Numerous fractures in the vertebral columns may lead to spinal cord injuries resulting in loss of essential motor and sensory functions(Akkawi, I., & Zmerly, H. 2018). The environment can be a significant contributor to the condition’s symptoms like frequent falling, for instance, in a steep geographical location with an irregular land surface may increase the frequency. of falling.

References

Akkawi, I., & Zmerly, H. (2018). Osteoporosis: current concepts. Joints6(2), 122.

Tu, K. N., Lie, J. D., Wan, C. K. V., Cameron, M., Austel, A. G., Nguyen, J. K., … & Hyun, D. (2018). Osteoporosis: a review of treatment options. Pharmacy and Therapeutics43(2), 92.

Thomas Lyons

Aug 11, 2020 at 2:25 PM

My topic assignment is the Muscular System.

A description of the location and function of the muscular system.

The muscular system is a body system which is composed of fibers and is located in all areas of the body. Muscles are responsible for the movement of the human body.

A definition of the different types of muscles would include:

The different types of muscles tissues are cardiac, visceral or smooth and skeletal. (Colbert, et al., 2013). Cardiac muscle cells are located in the walls of the heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow visceral organs, except the heart, appear spindle-shaped, and are also under involuntary control. Skeletal muscle fibers occur in muscles which are attached to the skeleton. They are striated in appearance and are under voluntary control. (“Types of Muscle Tissue”, n.d, para. 1).

The function of the muscular system is:

The major functions of the muscular system are the promotion of movement, circulation, posture and balance. Muscles are the only tissues in the body that have the ability to contract and promote movement to other areas of the body.

Muscles receive energy via:

Muscles receive energy by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This is the source of energy that is used to power the movement contraction in working muscles. Contraction itself (i.e. actual shortening movement) occurs when a bond is broken between ATP and one of its three phosphate bonds. It is the energy that is liberated by the breaking of this bond that causes the movement. Hence ATP is broken down to ADP (adenosine diphosphate). (How Do Muscles Work, n.d, para. 3).

Muscular contraction occurs due to:

Muscular contraction occurs due to the muscle being stimulated by signals from their motor neurons. The strength of a muscle’s contraction can be controlled by two factors: the number of motor units involved in contraction and the amount of stimulus from the nervous system.

The factors that influence the force of muscular contractions include:

The factors that influence the force of muscular contractions include the number of muscles, the size or the length of the muscles, the frequency or strength of stimulus, and the degree of muscle stretch. Precision of movement is inversely proportional to the number of muscle fibers. The size of the muscle will determine how big of a movement it is capable of making or how small and fine of a movement. With exercise, your muscles expand and the number of contractile proteins will also increase. The more intense the stimulus is the stronger the contraction will be and the frequency will affect the force of the contraction. The degree of muscle strength depends on the length of fibers by which the optimal force of contraction is achieved.

References

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals(2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

How Do Muscles Work. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.runsweet.com/starting-sports/how-do-mus…

Types of muscle tissue: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/19841.htm by

Dakota James

Aug 11, 2020 at 7:38 PM

My topic assignment is the muscular system.

The muscular system is the tissue that is located and connected in between your skeletal systems and your integumentary system. Muscle is the general term for all contractile tissue; a contractile tissue is a property that allows these systems to expand and compact and is controlled by nerve impulses (Colbert et al,2013).

The three muscle types in this system are: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Skeletal muscles are also known as voluntary muscle because they are consciously controlled and are attached directly to the skeletal system (Colbert et al,2013). Conversely, smooth muscles are involuntary and are not under the control of our conscious and derive their name from the lack of a striped appearance that the skeletal muscles have (Colbert et al,2013). Lastly, cardiac muscle is found exclusively in the heart and has a striated appearance (Colbert et al,2013).

The main function of the muscular system is movement, and nearly all movement of the body is controlled by the contraction of muscles within this system.

Muscles receive energy through an energy molecule called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP captures chemical energy produced from food molecules, in turn transforming it into fuel at the cellular level (Editors, 2020). The nervous system initiates this chemical reaction for this whole process.

Muscular contraction occurs due to contractile units known as sarcomeres. Sarcormeres are protein threads made up of cylinders called myofibrils (Colbert et al,2013). Each sarcormeres has two types of protein threads that cause myofilaments to slide toward each other, shortening the sarcomere which in turn shortens the entire muscle (Colbert et al,2013).

The factors that influence the force of muscular contraction include the number of muscles, the size and length of muscles. A larger increase in either size of the muscles, or the amount of muscles that participate in a contraction will effect how much force the system is able to exert.

References

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2020, March 12). Adenosine triphosphate. Retrieved August 12, 2020, from https://www.britannica.com/science/adenosine-triph…

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee. K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology, & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals(2nd ed.). Boston: MA. Pearson Education.

Shannon Wight

Aug 12, 2020 at 9:34 PM

Hello everyone,

The skeletal system is the framework of the body system comprised of bones, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that perform vital functions within the human body. The human body consists of 206 bones and divided into five classifications that consist of:

  1. Long bones e.g., humerus and femur
  2. Short bones e.g., carpals of the wrist and tarsals of the ankles
  3. Flat bones e.g., skull and shoulder blades
  4. Irregular bones e.g., vertebrae and facial bones
  5. Sesamoid bones e.g., patella and feet (Biga et al., n.d.).

The skeletal system plays an important role by protecting internal organs, stores, and releases fat, produces blood cells, stores, and releases minerals, facilitates movement, supports the body (Biga et al., n.d.). All these functions are vital for health and well-being, as well as consuming enough water, protein, and minerals such as calcium for good bone health. 50% of a bone’s weight comes from stored minerals, 30% is from protein, and the remaining 20% is from water (Colbert et al., 2013, p. 6.1).

The process of bone development, ossification (osteogenesis) begins by the 6thor 7th week of embryonic life. The two osteogenic pathways include intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Regardless of the pathway the mature bone is the same in the end.

During intramembranous ossification compact and spongy bone develops and begins in utero during fetal development and continues into adolescence. The four steps of ossification include: 1. Mesenchymal cells group into clusters, differentiate into osteoblast (build new bone), and ossification centers form. 2. Secreted osteoid catch osteoblasts, that become osteocytes (mature permanent bone cells). 3. Trabecular matrix and periosteum form. 4. Compact bone develops superficial to the trabecular bone and the cramped blood vessels compress into red bone marrow (Biga et al, n.d.).

During endochondral ossification bone develops by replacing hyaline cartilage after birth through adulthood. The six steps of endochondral ossification include: 1. Mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrocytes that produce a cartilage model of the future bony skeleton. 2. Blood vessels on the edge of the cartilage model transport osteoblasts, that place a bony collar. 3. Capillaries penetrate cartilage and deposit bone inside cartilage model, this forms a primary ossification center. 4. Cartilage and chondrocytes continue to grow at the ends of the bone while medullary cavity expands and remodels. 5. Secondary ossification centers develop after birth. 6. Hyaline cartilage remains at epiphyseal (growth) plate and at joint surfaces as articular cartilage (Biga et al., n.d.).

Bone repair depends on the type and severity of the fractures and can occur directly (contact) or indirectly. Direct bone healing occurs when osteoblasts and osteoclasts join broken structures and indirect bone healing is more complex but involves endochondral bone formation in which broken bones form cartilaginous patches before re-growing new bone (Biga et al., n.d.). The stages in bone repair include: 1. Broken blood vessels leak blood that results in a fracture hematoma. 2. External and internal calluses form that are made cartilage and bone. 3. Cartilage of the calluses slowly erode and are replaced by trabecular bone that form hard calluses. 4. Remodeling results to replace immature bone with mature bone (Biga et al., n.d.).

References

Biga, L. M., Dawson, S., Harwell, A., Hopkins, R., Kaufmann, J., LeMaster, M., … Runyeon, J. (n.d.). The Functions of the Skeletal Systemhttps://open.oregonstate.education/aandp/chapter/6-1-the-functions-of-the-skeletal-system/.

Colbert, B. J., Ankney, J., & Lee, K. T. (2013). Anatomy, physiology & disease: An interactive journey for health professionals(2nd ed.). Pearson Education, Inc. https://content.ashford.edu/books/Colbert.3997.17.1