Need-Based Theories and Emotions

Need-Based Theories and Emotions

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Use the topic headings as subheadings. For both assignments thanks

Respond to your colleague posting in one or more of the following ways:
• Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional assumptions that underlie need theories.
• Provide an additional example to illustrate the relationship between need theories and theories of emotion and affect.

Topic: Need-Based Theories and Emotions

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory is based on the assumption that humans have a progression of needs that begin from lower level needs to higher level needs that move from needs to satisfy an individual’s physiological needs such as shelter, food, social relatedness to more higher level needs such as self-actualization and contributing to decision making in the work place, respectively (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Pinder, 2008a). Moreover, Maslow asserts that if a need is satisfied it no longer motivates, because a deficit need motivates the individual to satisfy those needs (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Pinder, 2008a).
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Needs Model sheds light on the work environment satisfying the needs of the individual and essential to motivating employees (Hulin & Smith, 1967). The first factor is the Hygiene factor that describes the need for job security, salary, work conditions, organizational policies, and quality supervision (Hulin & Smith, 1967). The second factor is the satisfiers or motivators such as growth opportunities, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. Herberg asserts that the hygiene factors need to be built into the job first then add on the satisfiers (Hulin & Smith, 1967).
Alderfer’s ERG theory by Clayton Alderfer’s built upon Maslow’s theory, but Alderfer collapses Maslow’s five levels into three levels:
1. Existence needs are desires for physiological and material well-being. (In terms of Maslow’s model, existence needs include physiological and safety needs);
2. Relatedness needs are desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. (In terms of Maslow’s model, relatedness correspondence to social needs); and
3. Growth needs are desires for continued psychological growth and development. (In terms of Maslow’s model, growth needs include esteem and self-realization needs) (Schneider & Alderfer, 1973).
This model proposes that when lower level needs are satisfied they become less important since they do not motivate a person (Schneider & Alderfer, 1973). Conversely, when higher level needs are satisfied they become more important because after an individual has satisfied their higher level needs, and then something disrupts the flow of satisfaction of that higher level need, then the individual begins to regress and the previously satisfied lower level needs become dissatisfied (Schneider & Alderfer, 1973).
McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory is based on the notion that individuals acquire their needs from personal experiences or experiences of others in their environment (Deci & Ryan, 2000). McClelland’s theory is summed as:
1. Need for achievement is the drive to excel;
2. Need for power is the desire to cause others to behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise; and
3. Need for affiliation is the desire for friendly, close interpersonal relationships and conflict avoidance (Deci & Ryan, 2000)
In summary, these theories of needs have three assumptions in common:
All humans have needs that they need to satisfy and they vary from physical needs to psychological needs.
A deficit in needs become the driving force or motivator to ensure those needs are met by the individual and their environment.
When those needs are met the individual becomes satisfied and then focuses on other needs that have not been satisfied.
Similarly, emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior (Pinder, 2008b). Emotionality is associated with a range of psychological phenomena including temperament, personality, mood and motivation (Pinder, 2008b).
Three theories of emotion are:
The James-Lange Theory of Emotion: According to this theory, you see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction (Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011; Pinder, 2008b). Therefore, an individual’s emotional reaction is dependent upon how the person interprets those physical reactions (Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011; Pinder, 2008b).
The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion: This theory states that an individual feels emotions and experiences physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling and muscle tension simultaneously (Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011; Pinder, 2008b).
Schachter-Singer Theory: This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the individual must identify the reason behind this arousal in order to experience and label it as an emotion (Ashkanasy & Humphrey, 2011; Pinder,2008b).
As result of the underlying assumptions of the need theories that identify that humans have physiological and psychological needs, and the theories of emotion that assert that emotions as an affect are dependent on an external stimulus that results in a physiological reaction, one can deduce that needs produce emotions that affect the physiological state of an individual that then drives an individual to take action. An example is, when a person is overwhelmed with financial issues this need will produce some type of reaction such as tension and frustration, which may then motivate a person to identify new ways to make money or cut down on unnecessary costs.

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References
Ashkanasy, N. M., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Current emotion research in organizational behavior. Emotion Review, 3(2), 214–224.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The” what” and” why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
Hulin, C. L., & Smith, P. A. (1967). An empirical investigation of two implications of the two-factor theory of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51(5p1), 396.
Pinder, C. C. (2008a). Human nature: Needs and values as motives at work. In Work motivation in organizational behavior (2nd ed., pp. 63–80; pp. 91–106). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Pinder, C. C. (2008b). Human nature: Affect and emotions as motives to work. In Work motivation in organizational behavior (2nd ed., pp. 107–143). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Schneider, B., & Alderfer, C. P. (1973). Three studies of measures of need satisfaction in organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 489-505.

Topic: Maslow’s needs

I am interested in Maslow’s needs which I think is rather superficial. For instance we all have the physical need for food, but depending on our income or wealth, we have varying ways to satisfy the need for food. For instance, if food was homogenous Maslow would be correct, but in the real world we convert the needs into wants, such as the want for more expensive, quality, and nice tasting food, rather than the calories in food. Even if we take people on the same income and wealth level their wants regarding food differ extensively. One often regards food as part of entertainment when wining and dining out, together with a show. This is not a need but a want.
I am wondering if Maslow’s needs hierarchy should be adjusted to separate wants, which are not as important as needs, but are directly related to income and wealth. For instance we need a place to stay, but once we have a house, for instance, then we crave a more luxurious one, in a more up-market area, with more rooms, and garages. In the top position, self-actualizing, we can also state that once the need for self-actualization has been met, say by a person being financially secure and having a telescope to satisfy a need for being an amateur astronomer, that person then has wants which are for larger telescopes, a darker location, and higher up in some mountains, and so the list of wants of a “self-actualized person” increases. This has nothing to do with the need for self-actualization. It is the unending wants that come with increased income and wealth.

? What do you think?

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