what will be required to happen as part of peacebuilding in that country?

  • There are eight (8) questions. Answer all of them.
  • Keep your answers short, but clear. (One or two sentences per answer; at most a very short paragraph)
  • This is an ‘open book’
  • You do not need to citesources, but you have to use your own words.




QUESTION 1  [10]


The Charter of the United Nations provides for many different actions that the UN could take, in its efforts to achieve peace and security. Some of these actions involve force, some do not. If the UN had to undertake peace initiatives in Syria, but had to rely only on Chapter 7 (VII)of the Charter, name any two actions that it could choose.




QUESTION 2  [10] 


When the United States invaded Iraq in 2003, did it use force in accordance with the United Nations Charter? Explain why or why not.




QUESTION 3  [10] 


When the war in Syria ends, what will be required to happen as part of peacebuilding in that country?


QUESTION 4  [10] 


The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a recent development in international humanitarian law, and its proponents (supporters) argue that it has transformed the debate on humanitarian intervention. What is it that sets R2P apart (that makes it different) from previous approaches to humanitarian intervention?




QUESTION 5  [10]


Consider the specific regional organization that you studied for your individual research essay. Why has it been successful, or why has it not been successful, at keeping peace and security in its own region?




QUESTION 6  [10] 


Is the current Covid-19 pandemic a human security issue, or a state security issue? Explain your answer.




QUESTION 7   [10] + [10]


The main reason why the United Nations (UN) was founded (established) as an international organizationin 1945, was to ensure international peace and security.


  1. Provide two different examples of weaknesses in the UN’s peace and security efforts since 1945


  1. With reference to your two examples, explain in each case what the correct approach would be (i.e. how that weakness should be corrected).




QUESTION 8[10] + [10 bonus points!]


  1. Name two considerations in the debate about reform of the UN Security Council.


  1. In your own opinion, which countrydeserves to be added to the group of permanent Security Council members?